Carbon Capture and Storage: A Deep Dive into a Key Technology for Mitigating Climate Change
Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a complex but essential technology for mitigating climate change. This blog post provides a deep dive into CCS, explaining how it works, its benefits and challenges, and how it can be used to create a more sustainable future.
Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a technology that can help to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate climate change. CCS captures carbon dioxide (CO2) from industrial processes or power generation and stores it underground to prevent it from entering the atmosphere.
CCS is a key technology for achieving net-zero emissions by 2050. It is particularly important for hard-to-abate sectors, such as cement, steel, and chemicals, where it is difficult to reduce emissions through other means.
How CCS Works
CCS has three main steps: capture, transport, and storage.
CO2 is captured from industrial processes or power generation using a variety of technologies. These technologies can be divided into two main categories: post-combustion capture and pre-combustion capture.
Post-combustion capture: Post-combustion capture captures CO2 from the flue gas after fuel combustion. This is the most common type of CCS capture technology, and it is already being used at several commercial CCS facilities around the world.
Pre-combustion capture: Pre-combustion capture captures CO2 from the fuel before it is combusted. This type of capture technology is less common, but it is more efficient than post-combustion capture.
Once CO2 is captured, it is transported to the storage site. CO2 can be transported by pipeline or ship.
CO2 is stored underground in geological formations, such as depleted oil and gas reservoirs or saline aquifers. CO2 is injected into the formation under high pressure, where it is trapped and immobilized.
Benefits of CCS
CCS has a number of benefits, including:
Reduces greenhouse gas emissions: CCS can help to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate climate change.
Creates jobs: CCS can create jobs in the development, deployment, and operation of CCS facilities.
Enhances energy security: CCS can help to enhance energy security by reducing reliance on fossil fuels.
Facilitates economic growth: CCS can facilitate economic growth by enabling the continued operation of hard-to-abate industries.
Challenges of CCS
CCS also faces a number of challenges, including:
Cost: CCS can be expensive to implement and operate.
Public acceptance: There is some public concern about the safety of CCS, particularly the potential for CO2 leakage from storage sites.
Regulatory barriers: There are some regulatory barriers to the deployment of CCS, such as the need for clear regulations on CO2 storage.
How CCS Can Be Used to Create a More Sustainable Future
CCS can be used to create a more sustainable future by:
Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from hard-to-abate industries
Producing clean hydrogen, which can be used to decarbonize other sectors of the economy, such as transportation and industry
Enabling the continued use of fossil fuels in a more sustainable way
Here are some stats and data from India and around the world regarding carbon capture and storage (CCS):
India has one operational CCS pilot plant, the Neyveli Lignite Corporation (NLC) CCS pilot plant in Tamil Nadu. The plant has a CO2 capture capacity of 100,000 tonnes per year and stores the CO2 in a saline aquifer.
India has a number of other CCS projects in the planning or development stages, including:
The Tata Chemicals CCS project in Gujarat, which will capture CO2 from a soda ash plant and store it in a saline aquifer.
The Reliance Industries CCS project in Gujarat, which will capture CO2 from a refinery and store it in a saline aquifer.
The Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) CCS project in Maharashtra, which will capture CO2 from a natural gas processing plant and store it in a depleted oil and gas reservoir.
The Indian government has set a target of deploying 10 million tonnes of CCS capacity by 2030.
There are currently 27 commercial CCS facilities in operation around the world, with a total CO2 capture capacity of 40 million tonnes per year.
The world's largest CCS facility is the Boundary Dam CCS project in Canada, which has a CO2 capture capacity of 3 million tonnes per year.
CCS projects are located in a variety of countries, including the United States, Canada, Norway, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Australia, and China.
The global CCS market is expected to grow rapidly in the coming years, with analysts predicting that CCS capacity could reach 2.5 billion tonnes per year by 2050.
CCS is a promising technology for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and mitigating climate change. While CCS is still in its early stages of development, there is growing interest and investment in CCS projects around the world.
Green Goods Guide
Green goods are products that are produced in a sustainable way. They can help to reduce our impact on the planet and contribute to the SDGs.
Some examples of green goods that can help to reduce greenhouse gas emissions include:
Renewable energy products: Renewable energy products, such as solar panels and wind turbines, can help to reduce our reliance on fossil fuels and reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
Energy-efficient products: Energy-efficient products, such as LED light bulbs and Energy Star appliances, can help us to reduce our energy consumption and save money on our energy bills.
Electric vehicles: Electric vehicles produce zero emissions, which can help to reduce air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions.
Sustainable building materials: Sustainable building materials, such as recycled materials and locally sourced materials, can help to reduce the environmental impact of construction.
CCS is a key technology for mitigating climate change and creating a more sustainable future. It is important to address the challenges of CCS, such as cost, public acceptance, and regulatory barriers, in order to enable the deployment of CCS at scale.
We can all help to reduce our impact on the planet and contribute to a more sustainable future by choosing green goods and making sustainable choices in our daily lives.
Additional Information and Research
Here is some additional information and research on CCS:
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has concluded that CCS is a necessary technology for achieving net-zero emissions by 2050